Civilization: Rules

From the Dawn of History to 250 BC

'CIVILIZATION' is a game of skill for 2 to 7 players. It is based on a map of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East on which are played out movements and interactions between different nations; each under the control of an individual player.

Although battles and territorial strategy are important, this is not a war game because it is not won by means of battles. Instead the object of the game is to gain a level of overall advancement involving cultural, economic and political factors so that such conflicts as arise are due to rivalry and (and shortage rather than a desire to eliminate other players. Nomad and farmer, warrior and merchant, artisan and citizen all have an essential part to play but these are not separate pieces and players must constantly be changing their emphasis between these various outlooks in order to achieve a winning balance.

Starting with a single unit, each player moves and increases his population each round as he inhabits selected areas of the board which are fertile and defendable. This represents the travels of nomadic tribes and their search for a suitable homeland.

As the board reaches the limit of the population it can support there begins an era of conflict as border wars help to establish the best boundaries but the scope for expansion by aggression is limited by the loss of people in the areas concerned. The pressure for expansion is more usefully absorbed in building cities, which house more people and are better able to resist attack. A consequence of the founding of cities is their need for agricultural hinterland and their generation of revenue (taxation) establishing a central fund for the benefit of the whole state but which also places a burden on those who have to support it.

Too rapid a rate of urbanization will inevitably lead to an excess of revenue over resources (inflation) and cause stagnation. Cities are essential to provide the wealth needed for an advancing civilization but, unless the wealth is augmented by trade, the nation will be out-run by others with a more energetic outlook. Trade, though, is not without its hazards in the form of alien philosophies and epidemics which can have a disastrous effect on people who have failed to evolve a balanced cultural outlook but such calamities may also provide the impetus from which a well organised society can rise in new ways and achieve further greatness.



20 Preliminary Note
Simplified and shortened versions of this game may also be played. These are particularly suitable for beginners and children or if time is limited. Refer to Part 7 for these versions

IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT ONE OR TWO OF THESE GAMES BE PLAYED BEFORE ATTEMPTING THE FULL GAME IF ALL THE PLAYERS ARE NEW TO 'CIVILIZATION'. It is not possible to appreciate the full potential of a game of this magnitude by simply reading the rules and to pitch straight into a full game will inevitably lead to time being wasted on unsound strategies and tactical errors.

21 Theme and Objectives
The object of the game is to be the first player to reach the end of the Progress Chart along the bottom of the board. This requires the possession of well over 1000 points. At the start of the game each player has just 1 Token of value 1 point. Extra Tokens may be added to the Board during each turn but, as there are only about 50 available for each player, it is soon necessary to find other means of expansion. 6 Tokens may be combined to make a City and Cities are eligible to collect Trade Cards, which have various values from 1 to 9 points. Combinations of Trade Cards have greatly enhanced values (4 to 256 points). Trade Cards (and Tokens in the 'Treasury') may be exchanged for Civilization Cards which have values from 30to 240 points. It is these, which are the primary means of building up the total value necessary to finish the game.


(31) Map Board with Progress Chart and Census Record
(32) 7 sets of Playing Pieces
(33) 7 Player Mats
(34) 74 Trade and Calamity Cards
(35) 72 Civilization Cards
(36) Rule Book

31 Map Board and Progress Chart
The board consists of 4 jigsaw join sections. It is divided into Zones, most of which carry a number in a coloured circle indicating the maximum number of population Tokens they can accommodate (see also AGRICULTURE, Paragraph53.81. In a few cases the Zone boundary may be interrupted by other details but should be treated as continuous.

Some Zones also contain City sites, shown as small squares.

The board is coloured to represent 4 different regions and areas of sea. Not all the regions are used when there are less than 6 players; see Section 42. (Areas of sea, which do not contain any land, may be used irrespective of the number of players.) There are 4 Flood Plains, which are shown as a darker shade of the regional colour with white details, and 3 Volcanoes, shown as white Cones.

Tokens may cross land boundaries but sea boundaries may only be crossed with the aid of Ships. Areas of Open Sea, containing no land, may not usually be crossed by Ship (but see ASTRONOMY, Paragraph 53.6). Several islands within one Zone are considered to constitute ONE island for rules purposes.

Progress Chart
This is divided into 9 tracks, each associated with a Nation on the Map Board (see Section 42). Each player moves a marker from left to right along one of these tracks. There are 15 steps along each track, plus Start (arrow) and Finish (circle) positions. The table is divided into 5 numbered Epochs, which are not of the same length on different tracks. In the last Epoch the points needed to reach a certain step are shown. These, too, differ between different tracks.

At the end of each Round, markers may, in general, be moved forward one step but entry to a new Epoch requires the player to fulfil certain minimum conditions as follows:

2nd Epoch     2 Cities
3rd Epoch     Civilization Cards from 3 Groups
4th Epoch     7 Civilization Cards
5th Epoch     Civilization Cards totalling 1000 points

The board also includes positions for the stacks of Trade Cards and a Census Record chart.

32 Playing Pieces
Each player has one set of Pieces comprising 56 round Tokens, 9 square Cities, 4 Ships and markers for use on the Progress Chart and the Census Record. These are in a distinctive colour. Tokens are played on the board and in the player's Treasury. Tokens and other pieces, which are not in use, are kept in the player's Stock. With 7 players each player uses only 48 Tokens and the excess should be removed from the game.

33 Player Mats
Each player uses one of these mats, which has separate spaces for his Stock and Treasury. The mats also include a summary of the game events.

34 Trade Cards and Calamity Cards
The Trade Cards represent 11 commodities and have values from 1 to 9. The value of Trade Cards increases when several of the same type are held (see Section 511. This card deck also includes 8 Calamity Cards whose action is described in Section 52.

35 Civilization Cards
These represent 16 aspects of Civilization. They are divided into 4 Groups, which are identified by colour. Some cards are members of 2 Groups. The colours are:

Arts: Blue
Sciences: Green
Crafts: Orange
Civics: Pink


40 Summary
Occupancy of the board is indicated by Tokens. Each Round another Token may be added to a Zone already containing one Token of that colour and 2 Tokens may be added to all Zones containing 2 or more Tokens.

Each Round, every Token may cross ONE boundary.

6 Tokens in a Zone containing a City site may combine into a City.

Cities pay Tax into the Treasury and collect Trade Cards each Round. Trade Cards may be exchanged between players to build up sets of increased value.

Trade Cards and Treasury may be exchanged for Civilization Cards, which confer special abilities and immunities on the holder.

41 Procedure
The game is divided into Rounds during each of which a full sequence of Events is possible. During each Event players make their moves, either in turn or simultaneously according to the type of Event. When all have played, the next Event can be performed, and so on: When a full sequence of Events has been enacted the Round finishes. The next Round can then start.

There are usually between 16 and 20 Rounds in a game and there are 13 Events in each Round. During the early stages of the game only a few of the possible Events actually take place but they must all be performed in the correct order, simply missing out those which are not appropriate or required. The immediate consequences of an Event may require secondary actions to be taken in certain instances. In the Sequence table below these are shown in parenthesis.

42 Setting Up
Assemble the Map Board. Sort the Trade Cards and stack them, face downwards, in their correct positions with a Calamity Card at the bottom of each stack except the first (the different value '1' and value '2' cards should be shuffled among themselves first). Lay out the Civilization Cards where they can be seen.

Take one Trade Card from each stack, so that there is one for each player. Shuffle and deal one card each. This establishes the order in which players choose the Nation they wish to represent. The player who has been dealt the lowest number chooses from the list given below, followed by the player with the next highest number and so on. Once all players have chosen their Nation the Trade Cards which were dealt are replaced on their stacks.

Players Regions Use Any Nations (number = no of players) MYSTICISM card
2 BUFF Asia (start from Hattusas)
Crete (start from Knossos)
Thrace (start from Odessus)
Use only 1
3 BUFF and PINK Asia (start from Hattusas)
Crete (start from Knossos)
Illyria (start from '5' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Italy (start from Tarquinii)
Thrace (start from '3' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Use only 1
4 BUFF and GREEN Asia (start from '2' Zone on Northern GREEN edge of board)
Assyria (start from '2' Zone in North East corner of board)
Babylon (start from Susa)
Crete (start from Knossos)
Thrace (start from Odessus)
Use only 2
5 All except PINK Africa (start from Carthage)
Asia (start from '2' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Assyria (start from '2' Zone in North East corner of board)
Babylon (start from Susa)
Crete (start from Knossos)
Egypt (start from Hieraconpolis)
Thrace (start from Odessus)
Use only 2
6 or 7 All Africa (start from Carthage)
Asia (start from '2' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Assyria (start from '2' Zone in North East corner of board)
Babylon (start from Susa)
Crete (start from Knossos)
Egypt (start from Hieraconpolis)
Illyria (start from '5' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Italy (start from Tarquinii)
Thrace (start from '3' Zone on Northern edge of board)
Use all

Remember to limit each player to 48 Tokens when there are 7 players.

Each player takes a set of Pieces and places his rectangular marker on the start arrow of the appropriate track of the Progress Char t and one other Token on the starting position on the board indicated in the Tabulation above. Players then take their seats around the board in a convenient arrangement.

43 Events
In addition to defining the order of Events that make up a Round this Table also serves as a general index to the rules of the game. It should be noted that it is Events E2, E5, E7, E9 and E10, which constitute the central core of the game. It is likely that it will be decisions taken in the course of these Events which will have the greatest influence on the outcome.

Events marked * must be performed in the prescribed order by the various players. Other Events may be performed simultaneously by everyone.

43.1 E1 Collect Taxation (Revolts) Only if Cities exist
43.2 E2 Population Expansion Always
43.3 E3 Census Always
43.4 E4 Construct Ships (remove surplus Ships) If desired
43.5 *E5 Movement Always
43.6 E6 Conflict (surrender of Cities and Reduction of unsupported Cities) If necessary after E5
43.7 E7 Build Cities (remove surplus population) If appropriate
43.8 *E8 Acquire Trade Cards (buy Gold) If Cities exist
43.9 E9 Trade If Trade Cards held
43.10 *E10 Exchange Trade Cards and Treasury If appropriate
43.11 *E11 Resolve Calamities (reduce unsupported Cities) If caused by E8 and E9
43.11 E12 Return Excess Trade Cards If necessary
43.12 E13 Alter Progress Chart Always

43.1 Taxation (E1)
If a player has Cities he must pay 2 Tokens per City into his Treasury (see also COINAGE, Paragraph 53.91. If the player does not have sufficient Tokens in his Stock to pay the Taxation on his Cities a REVOLT occurs.

If a Revolt occurs, the player with the most Tokens in his Stock after he has paid his taxes chooses which Cities are to Revolt and takes them over. He may take over only that number of Cities on which the original owner is unable to meet his taxes. The player taking over changes the Cities to his own colour. If he has insufficient Cities in his Stock to do this the balance are taken over by the player with the next largest Stock and so on.

A player taking over Cities as the result of a Revolt does not pay tax on them until his next turn (i.e. in the following Round). Also, Cities which change owners due to a revolt may remain 'unsupported' until the next Expansion (E2) Event.

43.2 Population Expansion (E2)
Each player adds one Token to each Zone which already contains one of his Tokens and 2 Tokens to each Zone which already contains 2 or more of his Tokens. All possible expansions must be performed but if the player does not have sufficient Tokens in his Stock to permit all expansions to be made, he may decide how to allocate his Tokens.

(Hint: Expand the most highly populated Zones first, otherwise you may lose track of which Zones have been increased)

43.3 Census (E3)
Each player must count the number of Tokens he has on the board and position his square marker on the Census Record chart accordingly. (This is to decide the order of play in Event E5).

43.4 Construct Ships (E4)
Ships enable Tokens to be moved across the sea. Each Ship built costs 2 Tokens, usually paid out of the Treasury, but the maintenance of an existing Ship at its existing location costs only one Token. Alternatively, the cost of building or maintaining Ships may be met by a levy on the Zone concerned, the necessary Tokens being removed from the board. Ships may be built in any Coastal Zone.

Tokens used in payment are returned to the Stock. Ships, which are not maintained, are removed from the board and returned to the Stock.

43.5 Movement (E5)
During this Event players move in the order given by the Census (E31. The player with the most Tokens on the board moves first. (This avoids complications caused by one player's moves influencing another's. It also gives the later players an advantage in that they can respond to a situation that has arisen and this compensates for their reduced military strength.)

All Tokens owned may, if desired make one move. Such a move may be across a land boundary into an adjacent Zone or it may be a move onto AND off a Ship.

A Ship may carry as many as 5 Tokens and it may move 4, or less, Zones by sea (see also CLOTH MAKING, Paragraph 53.11. A Ship may retrace all or part of its route and take part in any number of embarkations and disembarkations, subject only to the limit on its moves and its carrying capacity at any one time not being exceeded. A Ship may thus ferry several loads of Tokens across a narrow strait or pick up and set down Tokens at different places during a voyage. Ships may use any area of water including lakes but they may not use rivers or cross land. Usually they are limited to Coastal Zones, those which contain both land and water (but see also ASTRONOMY, Paragraph 53.61.

In E5 any number of Tokens may inhabit a Zone. Tokens may also be moved into a Zone containing a City (i.e. to defend or attack it). There is no restriction on the numbers of different player's Tokens that may occupy the same Zone.

43.6 Conflict (E6)
Conflicts occur if two or more players are occupying the same Zone and if the population is greater than that which the Zone can support. If the population limit (shown by the ringed number) is not exceeded different peoples will co-exist. Note that a Zone is considered fully populated if it contains a City. Conflicts may occur between Tokens, between Tokens and Cities and between Tokens and other Tokens defending Cities. All conflicts take place on land. Ships are not involved in conflicts although they may have transported the Tokens to the place of battle. Tokens removed in conflicts are returned to the Stock.

43.61 Conflicts Between Tokens
These are resolved by both parties removing Tokens alternately until either one player is eliminated from the Zone or the population level of the Zone is not exceeded. The player with the least Tokens present removes first. If both players have an equal number of Tokens in the Zone they remove simultaneously. (It follows that in this case an even number of Tokens must be present at all stages so that a Zone which can only support one unit will end up de-populated.) If several players are involved in a conflict they remove Tokens in ascending order of quantities of Tokens in the Zone. (See also METALWORKING, Paragraph 53.7).

43.62 Conflicts Between Tokens and Cities
Cities stand unless attacked by 7 or more Tokens (see also ENGINEERING, Paragraph 53.11). Tokens of less than this number are simply removed. If attacked by 7 or more Tokens the City is replaced by 6 Tokens and the battle resolved in the usual way. If two or more groups of Tokens attack a City they fight among themselves first; the survivors may then attack the City if they still have sufficient numbers.

43.63 Conflicts Between Tokens and Cities Defended by Tokens
The rival Tokens fight among themselves and, if sufficient attackers remain, proceed as in 43.62, above.

43.64 Surrender of Cities
If a player does not have sufficient Tokens in his Stock to convert a City under attack into Tokens then the City surrenders. This means that it is simply changed to the attacker's colour without a battle. A player is entitled to demand that any other battles involving him are settled first if this is likely to happen.

43.65 Reduction of Unsupported Cities
After all conflicts have been resolved a player must have at least 2 Tokens on the board for every City he owns. If this is not the case, excess Cities are REDUCED. A City is Reduced by changing it into the maximum number of Tokens that the Zone will support (Agriculture is taken into account).

43.7 Build Cities (E7)
If a player has 6 (or more) Tokens in a Zone containing a City site (shown as a black or white square) he may convert them into a City. If the Zone does not contain a City site 12 Tokens are needed to build a City.

There may never be more than one City in any Zone. No player may have more than 9 Cities; if this should happen excess Cities must be Reduced (see 43.65). A player must always have at least 2 Tokens on the board for every City he owns but he may wait until the end of Events E6 and E11 before making any necessary adjustments. New Cities may never be built in excess of the player's existing support ability.

After Cities have been built, any surplus population is removed to the Stock. No Zone may now contain more Tokens than the number indicated (but see also AGRICULTURE, Paragraph 53.8), and Tokens may not remain in a Zone with a City.

Tokens used to build Cities are returned to the Stock.

43.8 Acquire Trade Cards (E8)
Players take as many Trade Cards from the stacks as they have Cities, removing one card from each stack beginning with stack 1. The players with the least Cities draw their cards first, followed by the others in ascending order. If a stack is empty the player is not entitled to draw from any other stack; he must simply forego that particular card.

Players should not disclose what they have drawn as they may have acquired a Calamity Card which they will seek tn pass off in trade. Calamity Cards with a red back are, of course, visible to all and must be declared. These may NOT be traded. (See Paragraph 43.11 for resolving Calamities.)

A player with a large Treasury may wish to buy Gold during his turn at the rate of one Gold Card for 18 Tokens.

(If he draws 'Piracy' instead he use this card in the usual manner, see Paragraph 52.9.)

43.9 Trade (E9)
Trade is open to all players simultaneously. Trading Events are often noisy. Any number of deals may be made and offers may be changed, suspended or withdrawn in open negotiation among all players. Any one trading deal may involve 2 players only.

Trade is by a system of barter using Trade Cards only, not Tokens. Each player offers a stated number of cards, which must be 3 or more, quotes their total point value and gives the commodity of one of them. This information must be correct. Any other information, whether volunteered or sought, need not be correct. Another player makes a counter offer of the same type. If agreement is reached the cards are exchanged - face downwards-simultaneously. The Event continues until all players have finished trading. (Note that a player with less than 3 cards is not able to trade.)

43.10 Exchange of Trade Cards for Civilization Cards (E10)
Play this Event in inverse Progress Chart order, i.e. starting with Egypt and working up to Africa. Each player in turn has the option to exchange any or all of his Trade Cards for Civilization Cards. He may include Tokens from his treasury to make up the value needed. Trade Cards are counted at their combined value. No 'change' is given if the value of the Trade Cards exceeds the value of the Civilization Cards gained. Several Civilization Cards may be obtained at the same time if desired. Tokens, if included, must be to the exact amount required; excess Tokens may not be surrendered.

Players may not hold more than one Civilization Card of each type. No player may hold more than 11 of these cards.

Most Civilization Cards count as Credits towards certain others. In special cases this is stated on the cards concerned. Also, in general, all blue (Arts) cards count 5 points towards any other blue card or LAW. All orange (Crafts) cards count 10 points towards any other orange cards or DEMOCRACY. All green (Sciences) cards count 20 points towards any other green cards or PHILOSOPHY. Pink (Civics) cards do not count towards others except as stated under ARCHITECTURE and LITERACY. Credits may be combined from any number of cards held but no card may contribute Credits twice over in any one purchase, e.g. ARCHITECTURE counts 15 towards LITERACY as a Civic as stated on the card but the Credit of 5 towards LITERACY as an Art is not counted. MYSTICISM, MUSIC and ARCHITECTURE would count 5 + 5 + 15 = 25 points towards LAW; the first two being Arts which contribute to LAW and ARCHITECTURE counting a special Credit towards any Civic. The same 3 cards would count 20 + 30 + 15 = 65 points towards PHILOSOPHY; this time MYSTlClSM acting as a Science and the others being special cases. Credits count from the next round after they were acquired.

Returned Trade Cards are replaced, face down, at the bottom of the appropriate stack. Returned Tokens are replaced in the Stock.

Civilization Cards never change hands once gained, nor can they be surrendered. This makes strategic planning essential as players require 1000 points to enter the 5th Epoch and considerably more than that to win. Because of the limit on holdings, too many low value cards can be a serious handicap, particularly to those Nations which require 1400 points to finish.

43.11 Resolve Calamities (E11)
There is a Calamity at the bottom of each Trade Card stack except the first (see Section 52 for details).

Calamity Cards with red backs are not traded and must be declared and acted on by the recipient.

Calamity Cards with black backs are not acted on by the player who first collects them. Instead, he may pass them off in the process of trade and the person who receives them must act on them. (He may not pass them off to someone else.) They have value '0' in trade. Alternatively, a player who has not traded a black Calamity Card may surrender it subsequently during E12 or retain it for use at a later time.

Calamities are enacted in ascending order, starting with Volcanic Eruption or Earthquake and ending with Piracy. However, no player has to enact more than 2 Calamities in the same Round; once he has acted on 2 any further which he may have against him are disregarded and returned to their respective stacks. (A player may, though, be involved in the side effects of other people's Calamities irrespective of having to act on 2 of his own.)

Once ALL Calamities have been enacted any unsupported Cities must be Reduced.

Returned Calamity Cards are placed, face down, at the bottom of the appropriate Trade Card stack.

43.12 Return of Excess Trade Cards (E12)
Players may retain up to 6 Trade and black-backed Calamity Cards for the next Round. Any cards in excess of 6 must be surrendered and placed, face down, at the bottom of the appropriate stacks.

43.13 Alter Progress Chart (E13)
Each marker may be moved one step to the right along the player's track. Before crossing to a fresh Epoch, certain minimum requirements must be met. If these can not be met the marker can not be moved forwards that Round. Also, in any Epoch except the First, a player who ends up with no Cities remaining after E11 must move his marker BACK one step. 2 Cities must be owned before the 2nd Epoch can be entered.

A player must own Civilization Cards representing 3 Groups, i.e. 3 of the 4 colours must be present, before going into Epoch 3. A player holding the two cards MYSTICISM (green and blue) and CLOTH MAKING (orange) would thus qualify to enter Epoch 3.

A player needs 7 Civilization Cards to enter Epoch 4.

A player needs Civilization Cards of 1000 points minimum value in order to enter Epoch 5. Once in Epoch 5 a player needs the stated value in order to move forwards but he may now count the value of his Treasury and any Trade Cards he retains towards the required total. If the player can not make up points equal to the value shown on the next step he stays still but if he ends up with a lower total than that required for the step he is on he must move back.

44 Winning
The winner is the first player to move his marker onto one of the Finish circles. He may not do this unless he owns points equal to that required for the step he is moving off. This move counts as the last step along the Progress Chart.

In the event of a tie the winner is the player with the highest total value of Civilization Cards, Trade Cards and Treasury.


51 Trade Cards
This consists of a pack of 75 cards. 66 of these depict commodities of trade and have values from 1 to 9 points individually. 8 cards are Calamities, these have value 0 and are described in Section 52.

When more than one card of a certain commodity is held the value of the combination is greatly increased. It is often more valuable to hold a great many cards of the same type rather than a few cards of a higher value individually. For instance, a single GOLD is worth 9 points but three SALT cards of value 3 points each are worth 27 points. As an extreme case one card of each commodity in the game would give a total of 48 points which is the same value as just 4 SALT cards:

The formula for finding the total value of several cards of the same commodity is:

Add up the point’s value of the cards, then multiply by the number of cards held.

As an example, 4 CLOTH cards of value 5 = (4x5) x 4 = 80. It is not necessary to work this out because the values of multiple holdings are given on the cards themselves; combinations from 1 to 4 along the top edge and larger quantities along the bottom.

Different commodities, even of the same value, may not be combined. It is the combined values, which are used in all transactions involving multiple cards.

Because only one card of each value may be gained each turn the importance of trade to build up sets of the same commodity can be easily appreciated. The table below clearly indicates the enormous potential of successful trade in the useful commodities of SALT, GRAIN, CLOTH and BRONZE.

Number of cards:
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Hides or Ochre 4 9 16 25 36 49    
2 Iron or Papyrus 8 18 32 50        
3 Salt 12 27 48 75 108 147 192 243
4 Grain 16 36 64 100 144 196 256  
5 Cloth 20 45 80 125 180 245    
6 Bronze 24 54 96 150 216      
7 Spices 28 63 112 175        
8 Gems 32 72 128          
9 Gold 36 81            

52 Calamity Cards
The first four Calamities have red backs and apply only to the player who draws them from the stack. These cards are never traded; they must be acted on and are then returned to the bottom of the correct stack.

The second four Calamities have black backs. These are not actioned by the player who draws them but they take effect if they are traded to another player.

The numbers below refer to the stack in which the card is placed. All Calamities have a point value of 0.

52.1 Resolving Calamities
Tokens and Cities (not Ships) are counted in units when resolving Calamities. A Token equals 1 unit and a City equals 5 units. Treasury and Ships are not affected by Calamities.

Unless otherwise stated, Cities are eliminated when resolving Calamities. This is equivalent to a loss of 5 units for each City eliminated.

When a City is 'Reduced' it is replaced by the maximum number of Tokens the Zone will support; AGRICULTURE being taken into account.

Tokens and Cities that are removed are returned to the Stock.

52.2 Volcanic Eruption or Earthquake
If the player has units in a Zone with a Volcano (shown as a white Cone) all units in such Zones are lost irrespective of ownership. The Volcanoes at Syracuse and Cumae will effect BOTH Zones they border if they erupt. (If the player has units adjacent to more than one Volcano he can decide which one is to erupt.) Where the player has no units adjacent to a Volcano he loses one City Reduced by Earthquake and he may also Reduce one other player's City if it is in an adjacent Zone to his own - even though the two Cities may be separated by water. (For example: Rhodes and Miletus.)

52.3 Flood
The player loses 17 units if they are on a Flood Plain. This affects Tokens in a Zone which contains a darker colour than the rest of the region but Cities are only affected if the site is shown as a white square. Up to a maximum of 10 units belonging to other players may also be removed if they are on the same Flood Plain.

A player holding ENGINEERING loses only 7 units maximum due to a Flood.

52.4 Famine
The player loses 9 units himself and he may instruct other players to remove up to 20 units but not more than 11 from any individual. The first player decides how many units the others shall lose but they themselves decide which ones to remove. Any player with POTTERY may reduce his loss by 4 units for each GRAlN card he holds.

52.5 Civil War
35 units secede, 15 chosen by the player himself and 20 by his nominee. These units are temporarily turned blank side up. The player then decides which group he will continue to play. His nominee then annexes the other group and changes them to his own colour. The first player retains his Stock, Ships, Treasury and position on the Progress Chart. If the player has less than 35 units a Civil War has no effect! The nominee may be any other player.

If the player holds PHILOSOPHY, only 15 units secede, all chosen by the nominee who, in this case, must be the player with the most Tokens in his Stock. (This might be himself!) Then proceed as before.

If the player holds DEMOCRACY (and not PHILOSOPHY), 45 units secede. 15 are chosen by the player and 30 by his nominee.

(In the case of a Token or City shortage interfering with the standard procedure, consult Part 6.)

52.6 Epidemic
The recipient of an Epidemic loses 16 units. Other players, chosen by the recipient, lose up to 25 units (but no more than 10 from any individual) and the player who started the Epidemic off has immunity and can not be affected! No Zone may be left de-populated and Cities, if involved, are replaced by 1 Token; this counting as the loss of 4 units. The need to avoid de-population may sometimes reduce the losses that would otherwise occur.

If the recipient holds MEDICINE he loses only 11 units; any other player with MEDICINE may not lose more than 5 units.

52.7 Civil Disorder
If the recipient owns more than 4 Cities the excess are Reduced. If he holds LAW, only Cities in excess of 5 are Reduced. If he holds DEMOCRACY, only Cities in excess of 6 are Reduced.

52.8 Iconoclasm & Heresy
The recipient loses 4 of his Cities by Reduction. He may also order the Reduction of 2 other Cities belonging to other players. If he holds LAW, the recipient loses only 3 Cities and if he holds PHILOSOPHY he loses only 2 Cities. (Also, a player with LAW can not lose more than one City as a result of another player's actions and if he owns PHILOSOPHY he can not be affected at all in this way.)

52.9 Piracy
The recipient loses one Coastal City eliminated by each Ship owned by the player who traded him the card. Such Ships may be anywhere that is connected by water to the City being attacked but they must not be in a position that is separated by land from that City. A Coastal City is one in a Zone containing sea.

53 Civilization Cards
All Civilization Cards except MYSTICISM confer some special ability or immunity on the holder as follows:

Ships may move an extra Zone, a maximum move of 5 instead of 4.

Reduces the effect of Famine if combined with Grain (see Paragraph 52.4).

Counts 20 towards LITERACY.

53.4 MUSIC
Counts 30 towards PHILOSOPHY.

Counts 15 towards any Civic.

Ships may cross Open Sea (see Paragraphs 31 and 43.5).

If one player in a conflict has METALWORKING, his opponents) must remove their Tokens) first even though they may have the larger force: If both sides have METALWORKING there is no effect. (See Paragraphs 43.61 to 43.63.)

Allows the holder to increase the population limit by one in any Zones he occupies. It is NOT effective during conflicts or if different Tokens inhabit the same Zone.

The holder may fix his level of taxation at 1, 2 or 3 Tokens per City in any Round. He must levy the same tax on each of his Cities during that Round.

Counts 25 towards LAW, DEMOCRACY and PHILOSOPHY.

This reduces the effects of Flood (see Paragraph 52.3) and makes it necessary for an attacker to bring at least 8 (not 7) Tokens against a City in order to take it (see Paragraph 43.62).

Reduces the effect of Epidemic (see Paragraph 52.6).

53.13 LAW
This is required before either DEMOCRACY or PHILOSOPHY is gained. It also reduces the effect of Civil Disorder and Iconoclasm & Heresy (see Paragraphs 52.7 and 52.8).

Reduces the effects of Civil War and Civil Disorder (see Paragraphs 52.5 and 52.7).

Modifies Civil War and reduces the effects of Iconoclasm & Heresy (see Paragraphs 52.5 and 52.8).

54 Civilization Card Values and Credits
All Civilization Cards have a point’s value shown by the central number on the card. The colour of the title band identifies the Group the card belongs to; Arts are blue, Crafts orange, Sciences green and Civics pink. Some cards belong to 2 Groups.

The cards also carry a geometric symbol giving their Credit value towards others in the same Group (see Paragraph 43.101. LAW, DEMOCRACY and PHILOSOPHY do not contribute Credits themselves but receive Credits from Arts, Crafts and Sciences respectively.

There are 4 of each card except MYSTICISM (3), DEMOCRACY and PHILOSOPHY (5), ARCHITECTURE and LITERACY (6), and LAW (7).


60 General Discussion
In a large and complex game with many players it is inevitable that there will be various unusual combinations of actions occurring from time to time. To add these to the general rules would make these far too bulky and difficult to follow at the first reading. Nor is it necessary that such points should be dealt with in advance because such circumstances are most unlikely to form part of the strategic plan of any but the most experienced players. It is, though, necessary that these cases be properly resolved when they take place and it is hoped that this section, partly in the form of Rules and partly Guiding Principles, will meet this requirement.

61 Classification
In 'Civilization', Special Cases are likely to arise in connection with the following:
(62) Orders of precedence.
(63) Multiple actions involving more than 2 players.
(64) Shortage of Cities.
(65) Shortage of Tokens:
    65.1 In the Stock
    65.2 In the Treasury
    65.3 In play on the board
(66) Errors.

62 Orders of Precedence
In the absence of any other ruling, and to resolve ties, players should always move in the order listed on the Progress Chart, i.e. Africa first, Egypt last, when order is important. This same order should be used to decide who should be involved in a specific action, e.g. in the case of a Revolt when two or more players have an equal number of Tokens in their Stock.

When resolving conflicts the order of play is only important if a Token shortage is possible. In such cases resolve conflicts involving Tokens only first, then resolve those involving Tokens attacking Cities. Start with battles involving Africa, then do the remaining battles involving Italy, then Illyria and so on.

63 Multiple Actions
These should be separated into individual actions and then dealt with as in 62 above.

64 Shortage of Cities
During E7 this only limits the number of Cities that are built. A City shortage is only critical when resolving Revolts or after a Civil War. In the first case use the procedure in Paragraph 43.1. In the case of Civil War, a player acquiring excess Cities loses them by Revolt as in Paragraph 43.1. (Note that it is just possible that this could lead them to revert back to the original player!)

65.1 Shortage of Tokens in the Stock
The effects of this depend on the circumstances causing the shortage:

During E1: See Revolts, Paragraph 43.1.
During E2: Simply limits the possible expansion, see Paragraph 43.2
During E6: City under attack surrenders, see Paragraphs 43.64 and 62.
During E7 and E11: Cities that would otherwise be Reduced are eliminated instead. (But not in the case of Civil War.)
During Civil War: The player with the most Tokens in his Stock takes over any excess Tokens.

65.2 Shortage of Tokens in the Treasury
This has no critical result.

65.3 Shortage of Tokens on the Board
This is only critical if insufficient Tokens remain to support the player's Cities. In this case excess Cities must be Reduced as in Paragraph 43.65.

66 Errors
Whenever possible these should be rectified by restoring the correct situation; if this can not be done, because the illegal action has since affected other moves which can not readily be reversed, the culprit may be required to pay a penalty if it is considered that he has benefited from his action. In such a case he may not move his marker forwards during E13 of that Round.


71 The Game of Nomads and Seafarers
This is a game of territory acquisition for up to 4 players. It is fast and fairly trivial but not quite as easy as it looks.

Use the whole board and one set of pieces for each player. Do not use the square City pieces or any of the cards. Place a rectangular marker on the top track of the Progress Chart for use as a turn marker and move this one step to the right after each Round, beginning from the Start arrow.

Read Section 32 but disregard City sites, Flood Planes and Volcanoes. Areas of Open Sea may be crossed by Ship but Ships may not remain in these Zones between turns. Choose starting positions, which should be well separated, by reference to Section 42 but note that in this game players do not need their own individual marker on the Progress Chart.

Play in turn using Section 43, 43.2, 43.4 and 43.5 only, plus:

Special Rule
Tokens may not be moved into a Zone already occupied by another player. Also, Ships may only be built or maintained by a levy, there being no Treasury, and the order of moving is the order given on the Progress Chart, there being no Census.

The winner is the player who occupies the greatest number of Zones at the finish (not necessarily the player with the most Tokens on the board). This game is not entirely fair, some starting positions have an advantage.

72 The Game of Farmers and Citizens
Set this up as for the game above except use the Cities and Progress Chart in the same way as for the Full Game. Disregard the condition needed to enter Epoch 3 on the Progress Chart and play until the second triangular mark is passed. If several players do this together the winner is the player with the most Cities.

Read Section 31, 32 and 33. Disregard Flood Plains and Volcanoes and use Open Sea as above. Start as in Section 42, using Trade Cards to decide starting order, but do not use any other cards.

Play using Section 43, 43.2 to 43.7 and 43.13. As above, Ships may only be built by levy but, this time, use the Census to govern the order of play in E5. Do not use the 'Special Rule' above but resolve conflicts as in Paragraph 43.6.

If the victory conditions of this game are found to be too easy it may be shortened by one or two Rounds.

73 Shortened Versions of the Full Game
Shorter versions of the Full Game may be played, terminating when either the 2nd, 3rd or 4th inverted triangular mark on the Progress Chart is passed. (I.e. after 9, 12 or 14 steps from the start.) Do not finish at any other points. Use the ordinary rules in all other respects except for the MYSTICISM cards, which should NOT be used in this case.

The designs on the playing pieces are taken from the following traditions and might be used to represent the Nations listed below:

Bull's head Minoan religion CRETE White
Sacred ibis Tomb paintings EGYPT Orange
Owl symbol Athenian symbol ILLYRIA or THRACE Purple
Elephant Carthaginian AFRICA Green
Goose Ornamental vase ASIA Black
Winged bull Gate carvings ASSYRIA Blue
Sphinx Persian tradition BABYLON Red

The figures appearing on the box lid are, from left to right:
Greek Hoplite, 700 to 600 BC
Amorite woman, 2000 to 1700 BC
Farmer from the Jericho area, 3500 to 2000 BC
King in ceremonial dress, Babylon, 1900 to 1590 BC
Egyptian priest, New Kingdom, 1570 to 1085 BC
Egyptian queen, New Kingdom, 1570 to 1085 BC

Game Design: F.G.Tresham
Game Test and Development:
Dr. Richard Gibbons, David Maxwell, Dr. Douglas May, Maurice Roth, F.G.Tresham, T.E.Tresham
Artwork: Ed Dovey
Made under licence from Hartland Trefoil Ltd. Northampton, England Copyright 1980 and 1988 F.G.Tresham

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This site is created and maintained by: Carl-Gustaf Samuelsson